Day 2 :
- Clinical and Biomedical Engineering | Medical Devices and Medical Imaging
Location: Osaka, Japan
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Andre van Zyl has obtained his Postgraduate studies as a Specialist in Oral Medicine and Periodontics from the University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa. He is currently the Head of Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. He is also the Chair of the International Team for Implantology Center of Excellence at Pretoria and also Chair of the ITI Scholarship Center.
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Yaw Opoku-Damoah is a PhD Researcher at the Chinese Academy Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica. He has received his Masters in Pharmaceutics from the China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China. As part of his National Service, he has worked with the Import and Export Control Department of the Food and Drugs Authority, Ghana, West Africa before being awarded a Joint Chinese Government Scholarship/Ghana Government Scholarship to pursue Postgraduate studies in Pharmaceutics. His research is focused on biopharmaceutics, nanotechnology, drug delivery and theranostics. He is specifically interested in the use of nanotheranostics for site-specific delivery and diagnosis of tumors. He has publications in high impact factor journals such as Biomaterials and Theranostics.
The emergence of nanotechnology comes with a grave concern about efficacy, toxicity and side effects. Even though chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy have been able to provide valuable assistance in clinical treatment, there is a pressing need for novel bio-friendly drug delivery systems which can eliminate all the constraints related to the traditional treatment regimen. This present work encompasses drug targeting via reconstituted high-density lipoproteins, combined chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy as well as in vitro nano inspired theranostics. We successfully synthesized zinc oxide-bound paclitaxel (ZnO/PTX) and packaged the photochemotherapeutic formulation into high-density lipoproteins via one-pot synthesis. The final rHDL/ZnO/PTX nanomedicine had a characteristic near-spherical shape and a particle size of 164.9±2.8. A zeta potential of-19.94±1.73 as well as percent drug loading of 12.75% demonstrated that the nanoformulation could be an efficient in cancer drug delivery system. FTIR analysis proved that ZnO was successfully bound to PTX via hydrogen bonding before subsequent co-encapsulation in the lipid core. We further determined the UV absorbance and fluorescence spectra of our formulation. The PTX and ZnO drug release pattern was assessed by two methods and analyzed by HPLC and ICP-OES analysis, respectively. The results suggested that ZnO could remain intact in neutral solutions but could slightly dissolve in acidic and harsh dissolution media to trigger the collapse of the nanoparticle. The in vitro antitumor efficacy on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 cells) was evaluated by MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results suggested that the terminal nanoparticle could control the release of drugs and maximize the cancer cell toxicity. The final nanoparticles irradiated with UV light proved to be the most efficient treatment relative to the other groups. It was also deduced that UV light may be used for photodynamic therapy as an improvement for the antitumor efficacy of rHDL/ZnO/PTX. This was further confirmed by the quantitative and qualitative detection of ROS which serves as an apoptotic tool. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to detect the presence of ROS with the help of DCFH-DA ROS detection kit, and the resulting images suggested that rHDL/ZnO/PTX could produce significant quantities of reactive oxygen species. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the fluorescence was more conspicuous in cells that were irradiated with UV light as compared to cells incubated with rHDL/ZnO/PTX and rHDL/PTX. We further employed Annexin V FITC Apoptosis kit and flow cytometry to evaluate the existence of apoptotic and necrotic cells after incubating drugs with various drug formulations. We also utilized the ZnO fluorescence to track intracellular trafficking with both active and passive targeting. This study further confirmed that rHDL/ZnO/PTX could be harnessed for UV light-mediated photochemotherapy while ApoA-I could help facilitate the shuttling of drugs into cancer cells via SR-BI receptors. In addition, we demonstrated that ZnO could be used as a potential in vitro theranostic moiety while mediating photodynamic therapy and pH-responsive drug delivery. Herein, we were able to establish that our nano-based in vitro theranostic platform could be a robust, safe, stable and efficient nanodelivery system which could be developed for future cancer therapy and diagnosis.
Glocal University, India
Abdul Hafeez has completed his MPharm in Pharmaceutics from Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Moradabad, India and pursuing his Doctoral studies from Glocal University, India in Pharmaceutics Department. He has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute. He is a Member of reputed pharmaceutical societies like Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI) and Indian Pharmacy Graduate Association (IPGA).
Melanoma is one of the types of cancer of skin which generates from the pigment cells known as melanocytes of skin and covers global economic burden for the treatment. Regular exposure of skin of genetically susceptible person to ultra-violet radiation range is the main cause of induction of melanoma in skin. Dacarbazine which is chemically imidazolecarboxamide is utilized as a drug of choice for the treatment of melanoma as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma cancer. Dacarbazine induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the cancerous cells of melanoma by inhibition of synthesis of DNA. Major drawback with this drug is its poor solubility in water, short shelf-life in systemic circulation, low rate of response and severe adverse effect which limits its utility. In this study, Dacarbazine in the form of nanoformuation (size >100 nm) was utilized for augmenting the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic drug. In current study Dacarbazine nanostructured lipid particles (DTIC-NLPs) were prepared by solvent diffusion method. In drug release study, the drug shows depressed release in free form in comparison to DTIC-NLPs after 48 hours in PBS (pH 7.4). MTT assay shows its strong cytotoxic potential as compare to simple Dacarbazine suspension.
Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra. India.
Vipan Kakkar received the bachelors degree in electronics engineering from Nagpur University, India; masters degree from Bradford University, UK, in 1997, and doctorate from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. He worked at Phillips, the Netherlands, as R&D engineer and system architect in various System‐on‐Chip projects for 8 years. Since 2009, he has been faculty with the Department of Electronics Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, India. His research interests include nanotechnology, ultra low‐power analog and mixed signal design, microelectromechanical (MEMS) systems design, synthesis and optimization of digital circuits, biomedical system and implants design, and audio and video processing. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE and Life Member of the ISTE and has served as an Executive Council Member of IEEE, Delhi, India, and has developed IPs, and published many research papers in peer‐reviewed journals and international conferences.
Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs), especially biosensors research is still in its early stages, and thus represents an enormous opportunity for which Ultra Low Power System on Chip (SoC) and VLSI/MEMS technologies can enable the development of novel devices and therapies. Broadly, biomedical implants encompass a range of medical solutions for various bodily disorders and include Cardiovascular implantable devices such as defibrillators, pacemakers; Neural devices like deep brain stimulation (DBS) and prostheses for central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), cochlear and retinal applications; Biosensors include miniaturized glucose sensor, cholesterol sensors, saliva sensors etc. are picking up in the research arena. Unlike other commercial devices however, developing microsystems for these applications requires critical analysis in terms of specifications, technologies and design techniques because of the devices’ safety and efficacy. The trade-off between performance and power consumption is a challenging act in the design of these devices. This presentation aims to evaluate possible applications, to derive the requirements that future circuits integrating bio-sensors, ultra low power processors, must meet and to recognize, as far as possible, the challenges which have to be faced.